¹ŧͧ

            ¹ŧͧ ¶֧÷ѵԵҧ仨ҡ ҨԴͧҵԴҡáзҧҧ˹ ͡ 3 Դ
            1. ¹ʶҹТͧ
            2. ¢ͧ
            3. Դԡ

¹ʶҹТͧ
            㹸ҵЪԴлҡʶҹʶҹ˹ ͧ ͧ ö¹ҡʶҹ˹ʶҹ˹ öѺʶҹա ¹ŧʶҹТͧǢͧµçѺ¹ŧѧҹ
¹ʶҹТͧèҡͧ繢ͧ Шҡͧʨеͧçִ˹ҧ͹ҤŴŧ͹Ҥ ԴèѺǡѹŧ 觷ѧҹҪ ͹ʶҹТͧ秨зͧǡ繢ͧ ͹ͧǨзͧǡ

            㹷ҧѺѹ¹ʶҹТͧèҡʡѺ繢ͧ Шҡͧǡ繢ͧ秹鹨еͧçִ˹ҧ͹Ҥ ͹ҤѴǡѹҡ 觷ä¤͹͡ ŴسԢͧʶҹŧзʤǺ蹡繢ͧ ŴسԢͧŧաзͧǡ繢ͧ



            ѧҹ͹¹ʶҹТͧ¡ ͹ὧ ¹ʶҹШҡͧǡ¡ ͹ὧͧá ¹ʶҹТͧ繢ͧ¡ ͹ὧͧ ͹ὧͧЪԴդ੾е ͹ὧͧáͧ͢դ 540 յ͡ ͹ὧͧǢͧդ 80 յ͡
㹪ԵШѹǢͧѺ¹ŧʶҹТͧ ¹ʶҹТͧ㹸ҵع¹ѯѡ 觹Ҵع¹ ͡ҡѧªҡ¹ʶҹТͧ¡ó ѧ
            1. ¹ʶҹТͧèҡͧ繢ͧǡ͹йẺ ٻҧͧ ¹ ʵԡ
            2. ¹ʶҹШҡͧǡ ªҡçѹ͹ʹ㹡عѧѹͧͧԴ俿
            3. ¹ʶҹШҡͧ繢ͧ ÷ȡ ÷ӹ

¢ͧ
ա¨ա¹ŧѧҹ͹ 2 Ẻ
            1. »¤͹
            2. »ٴ͹
¨繻㴢ѺԴͧеǷ·Ǣͧ 㹢зԴ ·繢ͧ秨¡͹Ҥ ִ˹ǡѺšŢͧ кǹùǢͧѺѧҹ Ҿѧҹ¡͹Ҥͧͧջҳ¡ҾѧҹԴҡ ִ˹ҧ͹Ҥͧ¡ѺǷ ¢ͧùл¾ѧҹ͡ ¨س٧ »¡ »¤͹
㹷ҧѺѹ Ҿѧҹ㹡¡͹Ҥͧ·繢ͧջҳҡ ѧҹԴҡִ˹ҧ͹Ҥͧ¡ѺǷ ¢ͧùдٴѧҹ ¨سԵŧ »¡ »ٴ͹
¢ͧͧ㹵ǷªԴҧ Դ㹷ӹͧǡѹ ¢ͧЪԴ繡¢ͧûٴͤ¤͹ ѵ੾еǢͧ

ҧʴҧ¹ŧѧҹ͹㹡¢ͧúҧԴ

            Ҿ ¶֧ö㹡ͧǷ 觹͡ҡТѺԴͧеǷѧѺ ҾǴ ա س Фѹ Ҿ¢ͧô㹹 100 س 20 ͧ ҡѺ 36.0 س 60 ͧ Ҿ¨¹令 37.3 ǹ¢ͧʨҡ鹶سŴŧФѹҡ ¢ͧʤ͹͡䫴㹹Ѵ

Դԡ
            Դԡբͧ 繡¹ŧͧèҡ ¡Ӵ¡俿 Դਹ͡ਹ
¹ŧҧբͧù͡ҡ ѧա¹ŧ ѧҹ Դԡ ͧúҧҧٴ͹ ԡբͧúҧҧ¤͹ ҧҧ¹繾ѧҹʧ ѧҹ§
¹ŧͧ÷Ѵ繻ԡö¹ʴѹ ҧõ駵 () мԵѳ () ѧҧ仹
Թٹ (ûСͺ๵) ŧ㹡ôäԡ 繿ͧʹͧԹٹ֡͹ ʷԴ鹤ʤ͹͡䫴 ¹ѹѧ
ôäԡ + ๵ ---> ô + + ʤ͹͡䫴
¹ѧ
2HCl + ---> + +
HCl = ôäԡ
= ๵
= ô
=
= ʤ͹͡䫴
ԴԡբͧЪԴԴԵѳᵡҧѹ仢 ѺԴͧõ駵 ШԴԡǪᵡҧѹ жººŢͧá͹ѧӻԡ оҡѹ (ԡյͧԴкԴ) 仵çŢͧ÷ " ¹ŧ ͧ÷кԴŢͧá͹ѧԴԡըդҤ "
ͧԧ ¹ ׹ ѹ š 繡÷ӻԡҧԧѺ͡ਹҡ Ѵ繻ԡջ¤͹ 觵ͧѧҹ͹ǹ˹ҡеԴԡ ͨҡ鹤͹ҡԡҡЪԴԡҵ仨з ԧ͡ਹҧҧ˹
ԡҡͧԧ㹺ҡȷ͡ਹҧ§ ʤ͹͡䫴 оѧҹ ¡蹹 ó ҡԧҾ͡ਹ§ ҨԴ ѹ ʤ͹͹͡䫴 ͤѹзҡʡáԴѹкҧԹ ǹʤ͹͹͡䫴ʷѴҧ§͡ਹ 㨹ʤ͹͹͡䫴 ʤ͹͹͡䫴ѺźԹʹᴧ źԹö͡ਹ§ҧ Ҩѹ¶֧Ե