ö·ʹѡɳзҧѹء

չ

չ
            չ (gene) ˹¾ѹء躹 (chromosome) ѡɳ§ѹ͹١Ѵ ˹ҷǺѡɳеҧ ҧѹءҡѧ١ҹ 㹤չҳ 50,000 չ չФǺѡɳеҧ ҧѹء§ѡɳ չǺѡɳоѹءҧҧ 2 Դ
            1. չ (dominant gene) չʴѡɳй ͡ չ§չ
            2. չ (recessive gene) չöʴѡɳҡ͡ չ·ͧչ躹
            
(chromosome) ͧժԵСͺ ⷾҫ ͧŷȹͧٹʢͧѧ觵Ǩçҧѡɳ ¡çҧ ҷԹ (chromatin) ҷԹҡ˴ŧ ѡɳ¡ (chromosome) Сͺᢹ 2 ҧ ¡ ҷԴ (chromatid) ᢹͧըشѹ¡ ૹ (centromere) ѧٻ

ٻʴ

ٻʴ§ͧᢹ

 

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# ӹǹͧժԵ ըӹǹ褧ҡѹ ժԵҧԴѹըӹǹᵡҧѹ ӹǹҧ׺ѹᵡҧѹ ׺ѹ§˹觢ͧҧ ѧҧ

ҧʴӹǹҧ׺ѹ

ժԵ

ӹǹ

ҧ ()

׺ѹ ()

1. ѹ

2. ⾴

3.

4.

5. ŧ

6. ŧѹ

7. عѢ

8. ҡѴ

9. ỹ

10.

11.

12. ˹

14

10

24

24

8

12

78

42

48

46

78

42

7

5

12

12

4

6

39

21

24

23

39

21

            ֡ҨӹǹٻҧͧժԵ ¹ҧ ʹǺҧԴ֡ йҶҾͧ ҡ鹨֧ҾҨѴ§ٻҧ ѡɳ ТҴ ¹ٻҧѡɳ͹ѹТҴ§ѹҨѴ㹤ǡѹ
㹤 46 Ѵ 23 ѡɳ͹ѹȪ˭ԧӹǹ 22 ǹ 23 ѡɳеҧѹѧٻ

ҧ 1 ͧ

ҧ 1 ͧ˭ԧ

ٻʴͧҧȪ˭ԧ


            Ȫ˹觢Ҵ˭ ¡ X ա˹բҴ ¡ Y ѭѡɳȪ¤ XY ǹȢͧ˭ԧ X ͹ѹ駤 ѭѡɳ˭ԧ XX
㹹ʢͧСͺҧ¢ͧժԵ ըӹǹҡѹء ء ͧҧ¤ӹǹ 46 ǹ׺ѹ§Ǣͧҧ ѧἹҾ

ἹҾʴ׺ѹȪ˭ԧ


            ب (sperm) ͧ (egg) ͧ 23 ѹ ըӹǹ 46 ҡѺҧ»Դѧٻ

ٻʴӹǹѧûʹ

ͤ÷Һ
            ҧ¢ͧժԵٻҧѡɳ͹ѹ繤 Ф¡ š (homologous chromosome) 觨лСͺҷԴ 2 ҷԴ (chromatid) ͹ѹ dzҷԴͧԴѹ¡ ૹ (centromere)

            ժԵءԴеͧա׺ѹ ʹçѹʹ 觡׺ѹ 2 Ẻ ѧἹ

            # ׺ѹẺ ᵡ˹ (budding) ҧʻ (sporulation) 觵Ǩҡ 1 2 ǹ¢ͧҧöԭժԵ (fragmentation) 駡ûѡ õԴ ÷Һ ׺ѹẺȹͧ¡Ẻⷫ (mitosis) ١ҹԴѡɳ͹ءС ѧٻ

ٻʴҧʻ

            # ׺ѹẺ ͧաҧ׺ѹѵҧ (spermatogenesis) ҧ ǹ㹾תҧͧó (microsporogenesis) ҧ (megasporogenesis) ׺ѹẺȨеͧաẺͫ (meiosis) 觨աŴӹǹŧ˹ ׺ѹ֧ξ´ ׺ѹͧѹз١Դըӹǹ

ٻʴ׺ѹẺ

Ẻⷫ
            Ẻⷫ (mitosis) ԴѺҧ (somatic cell) ҧ·ͧժԵ 鹨ҡ§Ǥ ⡵ (zygote) ⡵Ẻⷫ¤ ӹǹբ鹵͹þѲҨ繵

Ẻⷫ еҧ ѧ
            1. (prophase) з˴˹Ң ¡þѹǢͧ Ѵਹ ͧٴ¡ͧŷȹѡɳФ鹴 Сͺ 2 ҷԴ ѵૹŨ͹ѧȷҧç з˹ҷ繢 ǹաҧʻԹ (spindle fiber) ִ˹ૹѺǢͧǤʨµ
            2. (metaphase) ʨ ˴鹷ش ͹§ѹdzçҧ зѺӹǹ
            3. ͹ (anaphase) з鹷شૹͧ觵Ǩҡ 1 2 ʻԹŴ֧ҷԴ¡͡ҡѹѧǷͧͧ з˹ҷͧ
            4. (telophase) ״͡ѡɳٻҧ ˵ءóԴ鹺dzͧҧͺ ͧաҧ ѧٻ

ٻʴẺⷫ

Ẻͫ
            Ẻͫ (meiosis) 繡觢ͧ (sex cell) ѵöẺͫѳѧ ǹ㹾תѺóѧҧ׺ѹ Ẻͫ 2 鹵͹
            1. ͫ 1 зաŴӹǹҡŧ˹ ҡ鹷ըӹǹ繴Ծ´ (2n) ξ´ 2 ͫ 1 ͡еҧ 4
                 1) 1 (prophase - I) зդѺ͹ҡش
                 2) 1 (metaphase - I) ʨ
                 3) ͹ 1 (anaphase - I) йૹѧ觵Ǩҡ 1 2
                 4) 1 (telophase - I) ըӹǹŴŧ˹
            2. ͫ 2 з¤֧ѺẺⷫ ա¡ǢͧҷԴԴشй 4 ξ´ 4 ըӹǹоѹءᵡҧҡ ҡ鹨¹׺ѹ ͫ 2 աèͧաժԵ٧ Сͺ
                 1) 2 (prophase - II) ͧҡ
                 2) 2 (metaphase - II) Сͺ 2 ҷԴ ͹§dzçҧ
                 3) ͹ 2 (anaphase - II) ૹͧ觵Ǩҡ 1 2 ҷԴ¡͡
                 4) 2 (telophase - II) Դʢͺ Դⷾҫա١ 4 ѧٻ

ٻʴẺⷫººѺẺͫ

ҧʴᵡҧҧẺⷫͫ

ͫ
1. 繡ҧ (somatic cell)
2. ŷҡҡ 1 2
3. ӹǹ١ҡѺ
4. աṺԴͧ繤ѹ
5. ҷԴ¡͡ҡѹ͹
6. ١վѹء͹Ѻ
7. աⷾҫ 1
1. 繡 (sex cell)
2. ŷҡҡ 1 4
3. ӹǹ١繤˹觢ͧ
4. աṺԴͧ繤ѹ
5. ҷԴ¡͡ҡѹ͹ 2
6. ١վѹءҧѺ
7. աⷾҫ 2

ö·ʹѡɳзҧѹء

            ժԵЪԴѡɳ੾ᵡҧҡժԵԴ ͧѧࡵؤŷͺ Ҩоѡɳзᵡҧѹ ҧյҪ ҧ١ ҧԡ ѡɳеҧ ҹѺö·ʹҡ蹾蹵 ¡ѡɳй ѡɳзҧѹء ѧҧ

ҧʴѡɳѡɳд


             ֡ԸաûѺاѹתʹ㨷ҧҹѹء ѹѹ֡ҡö·ʹѡɳзҧѹء ѡɳ¹ͧ͡鹶ѹҷ֡ѡɳ Ź֡§ 7 ѡɳ ѡɳդᵡҧѹҧѴਹ ٧Ѻ ѡɳ紡Ѻ索آ 繵 鹶ǷŹ繾;ѹѹǹ繾ѹ駤 ¾ѹҡùӵ鹶¾ѹһ١мѹ㹴͡ǡѹ ͵鹶͡ѡ任١ͨ鹶ԭԺ ǤѴ͡鹷ѡɳ͹Ҽѹ 蹹仨鹶Ǿѹѡɳ͹鹾ءС ÷ŤѴ͡ѹ͹зӡüѹ ¾ѹ㹡üѹѡɳ§ҧҹԴҡ
            ѹҧ鹶Ǿѹѡɳᵡҧѹ 1 ѡɳ 鹶Ǿѹ͡ǧѺѹ͡բ ѧٻ

ٻʴüͧ鹶Ǿѹ͡ǧѺѹ͡բ

ҧʴš÷ͧͧ

ѡɳТͧѹ
ѡɳзҡ
١蹷 1
١蹷 2
紡 x 索آ 紡ء 紡 5,474
索آ 1,850
ͧ x ͧء ͧ 6,022
2,001
ѡǺ x ѡῺ ѡǺء ѡǺ 882
ѡῺ 229
ѡ x ѡͧ ѡǷء ѡ 428
ѡͧ 152

͡Դӵ x ͡Դʹ

͡Դӵ ͡Դӵ 651
͡Դʹ 207
͡ǧ x ͡բ ͡ǧء ͡ǧ 705
͡բ 224
٧ x ٧ء ٧ 787
277

x ¶֧ ѹ
            ¡ѡɳзҡ١ 1 紡ѡɳе٧ ѡɳ (dominant) ǹѡɳзҡ蹷 1 Ѻһҡ蹷 2 ѡɳд (recessive) 索آѡɳе 繵
            ѧࡵ ѡɳдҡ蹷 1 ҡ蹷 2 ѵǹҧѡɳ蹡Ѻѡɳд»ҳ 3 : 1 ժԵ˹¤Ǻѡɳѡɳзö·ʹҡѧ١ ˹·Ǻѡɳ¡ չ
            ѡѹʵѡѭѡɳ᷹չչ ѡѧɵǾ˭᷹չǺѡɳ ѡõǾ᷹չǺѡɳд Ţͧö·ʹѡɳ㹡üѹҧ鹶ǵ٧Ѻ鹶ǵ Сüҧ蹷 1 Ŵѧ

Ἱѧʴüѹͧǵ٧Ѻǵ


            ١蹷 1 չ T Ǻѡɳе٧ ѡɳ ҤѺչ t Ǻѡɳе«չ ѡɳзҡѡɳзǺչ١蹷 1 ѡɳе٧ء ͹١蹷 1 Ҽѹͧ١蹷 2 Ŵѧ

Ἱѧʴšüѹҧ١蹷 1

            кǹö·ʹѡɳзҧѹء մѧ
            1. ྴա (pedigree) ; Ἱѧ㹡֡Ҿѹءͧ ʴؤŵҧ 㹤ͺǴѧἹѧ

Ἱѧʴѭѡɳͧྴա


            2. ö·ʹѡɳзҧѹءչ (autosome) չ (sex chromosome)
ҧ¤ 46 ҨѴ繤 23 2 Դ
                 1) (autosome) 22 1 - 22 ͹ѹ˭ԧȪ
                 2) (sex chromosome) ա 1 ( 23) Ѻ˭ԧȪ¨еҧѹ ˭ԧẺ XX Ȫ¨Ẻ XY Y բҴ硡 X
            # չ ö·ʹѡɳзҧѹءҡչ 2 Դ ѧ
                 2.1 ö·ʹѡɳзҧѹءǺչ蹺 ö·ʹж·ʹҡ˭ԧѡɳзҧѹ չ蹷駤չ蹤Ѻչ ͡ҡѧѡɳмԴ չ äʹ 繵

ٻʴѡɳТͧäʹ

                 2.2 ö·ʹѡɳзҧѹءǺչº ö·ʹѡɳзҧѹءԴԶ١Ǻչ ʹ٨ҡ¹͡駾ѡɳл չὧ ¡繾 (carrier) ͧѡɳзԴ
            # äԴҡչº

                 1) äʫ äʹҧҡѹդԴԢͧʹᴧ աѧźԹԴ仨ҡ Ҩաѧ¡һ ֧ʹᴧѡɳмԴ ᵡ آͧʹᴧŧ ѵ§͡ʢͧ١Դäʫ 繾Тͧä 繻ФͺǨҡѹء駢ͧõ駤 ҧͺǷչʫὧ 駤١ 7 ä§ ҧͺ١ 3 ä 3 ١ԴФѺչʫ仨ҡ ѵ§ 2 ͺǹҡѹзءդ§äʫ ҡѺ 1 4 ѧٻ

ٻʴѡɳТͧ硷äʫ

ٻʴö·ʹѡɳзҧѹءͧäʫ

                 2) ѡɳм͡ 繼ҨҡâҴ͹㹡ѧҹԹ ֧觼ŷ˹ѧ 鹼 ¹ ˹ѧբ ѧٻ

ٻʴѡɳТͧ硼͡

            # չ ´ѧ

            ҧö·ʹչº X »觧ҹѺ˭ԧ繾ТͧҺʹ ١Դ ѡɳҧ